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Further reading



Acharya, Sarthi. Micro credit in India: a review of sources, delivery systems and demand. Manila: Asian Development Bank, 1999.

Acharya, Sarthi and A.V. Jose. Employment and mobility: a study among workers of low income households in Bombay city (working paper). New Delhi: ILO-ARTEP, 1991.

Adams, J. and L. Paul. The informal sector in India: work, gender and technology, in J.W. Bjorkman (ed), The changing division of labour in South Asia. New Delhi: Manohar Publications, 1987.

Aruee, G. and G. Mhone. Employment promotion in the informal sector and the current economic crisis: the case of Southern Africa. ILO/SATEP, 1990.

Ashe, J. et al. Credit for the poor: a policy discussion paper. New York: UNDP, 1989.

Asian Development Bank. Micro enterprise development: not by credit alone. Manila, 1996.

Asian Productivity Organisation. Strategies for developing the informal sector. Tokyo, 1995.

Aziz, Abdul. Urban poor and informal sector. New Delhi: Ashish Publications, 1984.

Beavon, K. and C. Rogerson. Temporary trading for temporary people: the making of hawking in Soweto, in D. Drakakis-Smith (ed), Economic growth and urbanisation in developing areas. London: Routledge, 1990.

Beavon, K. and C. Rogerson. Aspects of hawking in the Johannesburg central business district, in C.S. Yadav (ed), Slums, urban decline and revitalisation. New Delhi: Concept, 1987.

Beavon, K. and C. Rogerson. The informal sector of the apartheid city: the pavement people of Johannesburg, in D. Smith (ed), Living under apartheid. London: Allen and Unwin, 1982.

Bienefeld, M. and M. Godfrey (ed). The struggle for development. Chichester: John Wiley, 1982.

Bose, A.N. The informal sector in the Calcutta metropolitan economy. Geneva: ILO WEP/WP, 1974.

Breman, Jan and C. Jerry (eds). Casual work and poverty in third world cities. Chichester: John Wiley, 1979.

Breman, Jan. Footloose labour: working in India’s informal economy. Cambridge: CUP, 1996.

Breman, Jan. The informal sector in research: theory and practice. Rotterdam: Comparative Asian Studies Programme, Erasmus University, 1980.

Breman, Jan. The urban informal sector: critical perspectives on employment and housing policies. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1979.

Castells, M. and P. Portes. World underneath: the origins, dynamics and effects of the informal economy, in P. Portes, M. Castells and L. Benton (ed), The informal economy: studies in advanced and less developed countries. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1989.

Castells, M. The city and the grassroots. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1983.

Chadha G.K. Informal sector in the Indian economy (paper presented at national workshop on strategic approaches to job creation in the urban informal sector in India). New Delhi: ILO, 2000.

Davies, R. The informal sector: a solution to unemployment. London: Catholic Institute for International Relations, 1978.

de Soto, H. The other path. New York: Harper and Row, 1990.

Deshpande, L.K. The Bombay labour market. Bombay: University of Bombay (mimeo), 1979.

Deshpande, S. and L.K. Deshpande. Labour mobility in Bombay’s manufacturing sector (working paper). New Delhi: ILO-ARTEP, 1990.

Dewan, Ritu. Organised production and unorganised producers (paper presented at national workshop on strategic approaches to job creation in the urban informal sector in India). New Delhi: ILO, 2000.

EDA. India: micro enterprise (country paper). Gurgaon: EDA Rural Systems, 1996.

Everett, Jana and Mira Savara. Organizations and informal sector women workers in Bombay, in Alice W. Clark (ed), Gender and political economy: explorations of South Asian systems. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Geertz, C. Peddlers and princes: social change and economic modernization in two Indonesian towns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

Ghosh, S. and A.K. Vohra. Improvement of income and employment in the informal sector through enhancement of productivity with particular reference to the approach and structure adopted in India, in Strategies for developing the informal sector. Tokyo: Asian Productivity Organisation, 1995.

GOI. National policy on vocational training (draft), Directorate General of Employment and Training, Ministry of Labour (confidential) 1999.

GOI. Report of the expert committee on small enterprises. Ministry of Industries, 1997.

Haque, T. and D.P.A. Naidu. Impact of economic liberalisation and globalisation on rural workers’ organisation in India (mimeo). New Delhi: ILO-SAAT, 1999.

Harriss, J. Linkages between the formal and informal sectors in developing countries: a review of literature (working paper, World Employment Programme). Geneva: ILO, 1990.

Harriss, J. ulnerable workers in the Indian urban labour market, in Gerry Rogers (ed), Urban poverty and the labour market: access to jobs and incomes in Asian and Latin American cities. Geneva: ILO, 1989.

Harriss, J., K.P. Kannan and Gerry Rodgers. Urban labour market structure and job access in India: a study of Coimbatore. Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies, 1990.

ILO. The urban informal sector in Asia: an annotated bibliography, International Labour Bibliography No. 13. Geneva, 1992.

ILO/ARTEP. Employment challenges for the 1990s. Geneva, 1990.

Jagannathan, N.V. Informal markets in developing countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Jalees, Farida. Survey report of Kanpur street vendors. Unpublished, 1999.

Jhabvala, Renana. Poor women in urban areas. Ahmedabad: SEWA, 1999.

Joshi, Heather and Vijay Joshi. Surplus labour and the city: a study of Bombay. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Kannapan, S. Employment problems and the urban labour market in developing nations. University of Michigan: Graduate School of Business Administration, 1983.

Lubell, Harold. The informal sector in the 1980s and 1990s. Paris: OECD, 1991.

Lund, F. and C. Skinner Promoting the interests of women in the informal economy: an analysis of street trader organisations in South Africa. CSDS Research Report No.19. Durban: University of Natal, 1999.

Manning, Chris. Indonesian labour in transition: an East Asian success story? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Mapetla, M. and A. Schlyter (eds). Changing gender relations in South Africa: issues of urban life. Roma: The Institute of Southern African Studies, 1998.

Mathur, K. Child labour in gem polishing industry of Jaipur (mimeo). Jaipur: Institute of Development Studies, 1991.

Mazumdar, D. The urban labour market and income distribution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Mc Gee, T.G. and Y.M. Yeung. Hawkers in Southeast: planning for the bazaar economy. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 1977.

Mukhopadhyay, Swapna. Role of the informal service sector in urban poverty alleviation in India. New York: UNESCAP, 1996.

NIUA. India’s urban sector profile. Research studies series number 61. New Delhi: National Institute of Urban Affairs, 1998.

NIUA. Structure and performance of informal enterprises: a study of four cities. Research study series no. 19, New Delhi, 1987.

Papola, T.S. and Alakh N. Sharma (eds). Gender and employment in India. New Delhi: Vikas, 1999.

Papola, T.S. Informal sector: concept and policy in M.K. Rao, (ed), Growth of urban informal sector and economic development. Delhi: Kanishka Publication, 1994.

Papola, T.S. Urban informal sector in a developing economy. Delhi: Vikas Publishing House, 1981.

Rao, M.K. The urban informal sector and urban development, in M.K. Rao (ed), Growth of urban informal sector and economic development. Delhi: Kanishka Publication, 1994.

Santos, M. The shared space: the two circuits of urban economy and their spatial repercussions. London: Methuen, 1975.

Sethuraman, S.V. The urban informal sector in developing countries. Geneva: ILO, 1981.

Shramshakti. Report of the national commission on self employed women and women in the informal sector. New Delhi: Ministry of Women and Child Welfare, 1988.

Singh, Surjit. Some facets of informal sector in developing countries (mimeo). Jaipur: IDS, 1994.

Standing, Guy (ed). Labour circulation and the labour process. London: Croom Helm, 1988.

Sundaram, S.K.G. Emergence and development of informal sector in Mumbai. Paper presented at a seminar on work and workers in Mumbai, 1930s to 1990s (mimeo). Mumbai: 27-29 November 1997.

Unni, Jeemol. SEWA-NCAER project on contribution of the informal sector to national income, sector unit. Ahmedabad: SEWA, 1998.

Wishwakarma, R.K. Informal sector linkages and its implications for development policy, in M.K. Rao (ed), Growth of urban informal sector and economic development. Delhi: Kanishka Publication, 1994.



Acharya, Sarthi. Informal sector in developing countries: a macro view. ‘Journal of Contemporary Asia’ 13(4): 1983.

Annis, S. and J. Franks. The idea, ideology and economics of the informal sector: the case of Peru. ‘Grassroots Development’ 13(1): 1989: 9-20.

Asef Bayat. Uncivil society: the politics of the ‘informal people’. ‘Third World Quarterly’ 18(1): 1997: 53-72.

Bandyopadhyay, Manjusri and Manash Ranjan Gupta. Development policies in the presence of an informal sector: a note. ‘Journal of Economics-Zeitschrift fur Nationalokonomie’ 61 (3): 1995: 301-15.

Beavon, K. and C. Rogerson. The council versus the common people: the case of street trading in Johannesburg 1920-1980. ‘Geoforum’ 17: 1986.

Bernstein, A. and M. Gray. Pavement people and informal communities: lessons for social work. ‘International Social Work’ 37(2): 1994.

Berry, A. and R.H. Sabot. Labour market performance in developing countries: a survey. ‘World Development’ 6(11-12): 1978.

Bienefeld, M. Informal sector and peripheral capitalism: the case of Tanzania. ‘Institute of Development Studies Bulletin’ 6(3): 1975: 53-73.

Bose, A.N. Calcutta metropolis and the informal sector. ‘Nagarlok’: February 1978: 15-16.

Bose, Pinaki. Formal-informal sector interaction in rural credit markets. ‘Journal of Development Economics’ (U Memphis) 56 (2): August 1998: 265-80.

Breman, Jan. A dualistic labour system? A critique of the informal labour concept. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 11 (48, 49 and 50): 1976: 1870-76, 1905-8 and 1933-39.

Carneiro, Francisco G. and Andrew Henley. Wage determination in Brazil: the growth of union bargaining power and informal employment. ‘The Journal of Development Studies’ 34 (4): April 1998: 117-38.

Duraisamy, P. and S. Narasimhan. Wage differentials between migrants and non-migrants and discrimination in urban informal sector in India. ‘Indian Journal of Labour Economics’ 40 (2): April-June 1997: 223-35.

Hart, G. and C. Rogerson. Hawkers in South Africa’s small urban centres: policy and planning. ‘Development Southern Africa’ 6: 1989.

Heller, Patrick. Social capital as a product of class mobilization and state intervention: industrial workers in Kerala, India. ‘World Development’ 24 (6): June 1996: 1055-71.

Joshi, H. The informal urban economy and its boundaries. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 15 (13): 1980: 638-644.

Mazumdar, D. The rural-urban gap, migration and the working of urban labour market: an interpretation based on a study of the workers of Bombay city. ‘Indian Economic Review’ 18(2): 1983: 169-198.

Mead, D. and C. Morrison. The informal sector elephant. ‘World Development’ 24(1): 1996: 1611-1619.

Moser, C.O.N. The informal sector reworked: viability and vulnerability in urban development. ‘Regional Development Dialogue’ 5(2): Autumn 1984.

Mukhopadhyay, Swapna. Locating women within informal sector hierarchies. ‘Indian Journal of Labour Economics’ 40 (3): July-September 1997: 483-92.

Papola, T.S. Informal sector: concept and policy. ‘Economic and Political Weekly’ 15 (18): 3 May 1980: 817-824.

Rodgers, Gerry. Labour markets, labour processes and economic development. ‘Labour and Society’ 11(2): May 1986.

Rogerson, C. The underdevelopment of the informal sector: street hawking in Johannesburg, South Africa. ‘Urban Geography’ 9: 1988: 549-567.

Shinder, Latham. Zimbabwe’s informal sector. ‘Monthly Labor Review’ 121(3): March 1998: 72-73.

Weeks, John. Policies for expanding employment in the informal urban sector in developing economies. ‘International Labour Review’ 111(3): 1975: 1-13.

Wishwakarma, R.K. Urban informal sector: concept, policy issues and measures. ‘Nagarlok’ 12(1): 1980.